Chemistry of Rust (Oxidation)

Oxidation of iron

Rust is all around us, but we as humans never really think about it. But it turns out that this rust is a chemical process with both elements, iron (Fe) and oxygen (O), which is formed into iron oxide. Which the formula of this is rust-nails 4Fe + 3O2 → 2Fe2O3. While this reaction is occurring the iron atoms are passing electrons to the oxygen atoms, which the transfer is called oxidation. The time when Impure iron is in contact with water, strong oxidants, oxygen and acids, it rusts. When iron rusts, the oxides take more of volume than the metal this generates enormous forces which then can damage structures made with iron.


Chemical Reaction in Industries and Daily Life 

One-third of the earth mass is iron. For unprotected iron to rust it can take as little as 4-5 days. Industries that produce iron, rusting is very significant for them, because if iron did not rust when reacting to oxygen, which is something not in or hands, then the buying of iron will decrease vastly. Over the past year, as iron hrusty-pipesas been exposed to oxygen that we breath (air i), the oxygen will break down and of course oxide the iron, the creates rust. All this happens with anything that is iron, but it happens quicker in outdoor, uncontrolled weather, like car rust quickly and always does rust.


Impacts of Rust (Corrosion) to Iron

Corrosion is a destructive type of attack of a material (in our case rust) by reacting with its own environment. Consequencimgreses of the corrosion process have become a worldwide problem. Corrosion can cause plant shutdowns, waste of valuable resources, loss or contamination of product, reduction in efficiency, costly maintenance and expensive overdesign. Iron is widely used around the world in building constructions and tools and other items used for appliances every day if we actually never had iron or buildings and other things that we built would never be stable enough but of course, eventually, iron rusts and those trusts make an ironThis consequence of rusting can be prevented by many things excluding air and water from the iron surface by oiling or greasing by painting or by collecting the iron with protection basically coating it off another metal.








My topic in this assignment is the physics of thermodynamics and how thimagesermodynamics works. Also talking about what is thermodynamics and how it can improve the way we travel and make us move faster. Do not think that thermodynamics Is only about steam engines it is almost about everything in this world.





Thermodynamics is a wide types of topics in science and engineering. In the past thermodynamics  was developed to make and achieve better power for steam engins. This began in the nineteenth century when steam was a big topic. Then various other range of machinery were invented as well as heating and pumps.Obviously as time Picture5went by many mistakes and accidents happened, but they learnt and adjusted their mistakes accordingly. Although science has made a big leap forward since then. But now they face big challenges from the very technology they invented on  they cause on the environment.



From steam to combustion to fossil fuel and electricity, scientists have strived to develop new technologies for us humans to travel faster, and lead a better and comfortable life, but environmently a big problem has rang alarm bells with regard to pollution. So now, solarUnknown energy, wind power technology are the focus, to cut down at least on these emissions and harmful substances and their effect on the environment. Consumer demand nowadays outstrips supply, scientists and media alike are trying to inform and create awareness amongst consumers and educate them as to how to use energy effectively and reduce unnecessary waste.

Technical science behind why the solution works

Innovation and clean science and technology is the answer to the problems and challenges we now face to save our planet. From classical thermodynamics to advanced science and technology. This century ( scientists believe) we will harness solar, hydrogen,hornet01b-300x249 wind power (to replace fossil fuel), especially solar energy could one day be exported to earth from one of nearest planet, this of course will put a stop on pollutants and give the future generations a better cleaner energy. The other thing is magnetism to be able to travel faster than ever before, magnetic trains are already in use in China, so magnetic car are also possible, hovering and floating above ground.

Success of solution

Understanding the role of thermodynamics in development of technology, was a starting point, now we need clean energy to be used. The problem is how do we harness that energy. Science and technology innovation is moving at ever greater pace much faster imgresthen ever before and I am sure a solution will be found in not to distant future. The maglev train that floats above ground has been carrying humans at great speed and it is only a matter of time before we see similar things like it invented.

Parts of the issue still exist or are not completely fixed by the solution

Scientists are I am sure too busy actually creating new innovative things in their labsspaceshuttleclimbout3.jpg.w560h420, looking for lasting solutions and breakthroughs , there are still a lot or parts of things that need to be completed, be it solar power for electricity, generating magnetism for solving transport pollution problems to achieve their goals of energy free pollutant technology, after all, lots of fictional things are becoming reality.

Major positive consequence

We all believe in science and technology to save us from the hidden dangers. Science andimages-1 technology has come a long way, in innovation, improvement from clean fuel to low emmission boilers, electric cars and lots of other low energy consumption machinery and other gadgets. Awareness and educating humans is the key about the care of our environment to achieve the aim of clean and healthy future.

Major negative consequence

If we look at the nuclear power for example, it has provided energy of electricity for millions but after Chernobyl and the latest Fukushima nuclear disasters many countries are havingfzz3 second thoughts and are looking at other ways, be it gas turbines, even coal as an alternative but they have their downside on the environment. Science and technology might provide better alternative , like solar power, but still a long way in supplying the ever growing demand.

 Overall consequence

Many disasters happens a long way from home, and after a little while, we seem to forget imageif similar disaster comes knocking at ou door. Nowadays science an technology produce both positive and negative results this is a serious challenge for those who believe in science and technology, who focus always on the positive side of technology and ignoring the negative side of things.

Worthwhile for society

From the age of steam engine, combustion engine, cars, planes, and electric trains etc…made society and technology were it is now, without that beginning, we would not be were we are now. As a consequence  we are able to see were science and technology willtrim-technology take us in the coming future. Science is not static it is exploding all around us. Innovations and discoveries are changing the whole economic, political, and social landscape.

Successful of solution in addressing the issue

We are now able to see the direction that science and technology will take in the very near future. Scientists predict wonders in innovations. images-3Things are changing fast in all aspects of science and technology, they will solve all the problems our world faces and solve all other  problems head on.



Iron ore

What is Iron ore?

Iron ore is a rock from which metallic iron that can be economically extracted. It is used for construction, car production, white goods and etc…, it is a rock which is very reliable. Around 98% of the world’s ironmagnetite_rock-mineral ore production is used to make iron into a form of steel.


The issue of iron ore

To find iron ore is a really challenging process,  when each massive truck collect the Earth from the site, usually containing 60% iron ore the rest is just earth. The companies do surveys IMG_1811before hand to make sure that the said percentage is obtained because there are risks the investment can go wrong, and lose lots of money.


Before it wasn’t easy to find iron ore. The companies before we’re guessing where iron ore was, now they have super advanced technology, first they start with geologists that  have access to labs, they do a survey for the areairon_ore_mines_050115.Then they find out the consistency of rocks in the area. After, they confirm the area, the work begins,the engineers play their role of planning how to excavate the earth and give the go ahead.

The process of Iron ore

Finding iron ore is not easy, it is a rather challenging process. Iron ore is naturally found in the earth. It is collected from the earth with huge big trucks then taken to the factory. The big trucks dump the load to a dumping area.Then special earth 97f5059cedbee0555afa9626760eee27938c3e5clifters take the earth to a conveyor belt that leads to the furnace.  Iron is extracted from iron ore in a huge container called a blast furnace. Iron ore such as having hematite contains iron oxide, The oxygen must be removed from the iron oxide to leave it behind by it self.  Carbon is more reactive than iron so it  can push out or displace the iron from iron oxide. So what happens is iron oxide plus carbon makes hard iron plus carbon dioxide. The blast furnace should be at 1200 degrees celsius and separates iron ore from the earth. At the end as a finished product iron ore comes out as linear billets.

Social, economic, cultural

The social, economic, cultural and in most cases political. positives are: so long as iron ore is in demand and prices are stable countries we’ll see a major development, but on the negative side if demand is sustained, environmentally disastrous, meaning  burning more fuel which is not a good thing. Consequently the solution has lots of advantages for human development. Overall I think the positive consequences is stronger then the negative consequence because development is necessary for the human kind.



“Iron Ore Chemical Compound.” Iron Ore Chemical Compound. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.

BBC News. BBC, n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.

“Iron Ore Statistics and Information.” USGS Minerals Information: Iron Ore. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Jan. 2015.




Reflection on Semester 1

This first semester in grade 8 humanities, has been a really amazing one. It was a really a different humanities class then last year because we got to be more interactive and class that worked harder this semester. The things i was proud of my self in humanities is being more confident of my self and less distracted by others. What i am least proud of is my concentration but i am working on to improve in every bit of this year. This class for me was a class of learning new thing about culture, and learning about how are past was. I learned the greatest explores, how they survived in the ships and how the what type of life style they lived in and how was the world was in the 15th century. The best parts of humanities is the current events when everybody talks about the world around us, communicate and judging each others comment and bringing up new information to our minds and learn more things and sharing them with our class mates. The presenting part for me in humanities was the worst because i need to work more on how to project to the audience.

imgresLondon for me is a place where there is a lot of history and thing to encounter about humanities and see a different life style from Turkey. The first thing that i encountered humanities is going to the Natural History Museum in London. How life was few hundred years ago. The second one is going to London to see the places and sculptures of world history. Last but not least i went to the British museum and saw the artefacts and culture of different civilizations.

Reading Task

I don’t read a lot because sometimes i find it boring. But if there is a book i like i would definitely enjoy the book. I mainly like mystery book and book that make me read and cary on reading and makes me continue read. I like to read books instead on reading on websites because i like to feel the book in my hand. Strong Reading habits are reading constantly reading daily at least half an hour. I don’t think i follow strong reading habits because i don’t read every day, but right now i’m reading a mystery book and i really enjoy it keeps me reading make me develop a wide range of rich vocabulary. I think the more we grow the less we read because maybe of time and different habits such as because of being more social and being with friends. If i was a parent or teacher i would have reading days in class, but not every day only like one or two times a week. These are my thoughts about reading.

The Crowd- India

“Population 7 Billion – Photo Gallery – National Geographic Magazine.”Population 7 Billion – Photo Gallery – National Geographic Magazine. N.p., n.d. Web. 24 Sept. 2014. <>.

The picture shows how city’s in india is getting too crowed. India is a really tough place to live and due to the noise and a over crowed country india has a lot of stress. India get polluted everyday by factories and people that throw trash.

My take away from this picture is when country like India is overloaded with people it make people stressed, less jobs, pollution and many more.

This is important because most city’s like this is not controlled in many ways.

Urbanization and evolution of cities across 10,000 years

YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.


This video takes about humans and how humans hunted for food and gathered into a tribe and moved on with life. Humans were living in places like small villages and then when the soil of the land dried they move to different places.

My take away from this video is how the people urbanised to different areas in the world and how they lived.

This is important because the people back then made an impact in how we live.

Basics of Geography: Climate

This video talks about what makes up geography like the people and how they lived, land and water. Also the climate is a weather pattern in a part of the world over a long period of time.

This video gave me a better understanding of climate change of the world and better understanding of my city climate.

It is important because it gives detailed information.

Coal, Steam, and The Industrial Revolution: Crash Course World History #32

YouTube. YouTube, n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2014.

This video talks about the history of the industrial revolution and how the industrial revolution made the items that we use daily. It also talks about how the industrial revolution made a more important in the history of other revolutions during the industrial revolution.

The video shows what the industrial revolution made now, for example driving a car.

Its important because without the industrial revolution we would be in bad conditions.

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